Fermentation in the curing of ham (jamón) is a natural process that occurs during the drying and maturing of the ham. During this process, the bacteria present in the ham begin to break down the sugars and other compounds present in the meat, producing lactic acid and other organic acids.
This fermentation helps to break down the proteins and fats in the ham, resulting in a more complex and deep flavor. In addition, fermentation also helps to preserve the ham and prevent the growth of harmful bacteria.
The duration and intensity of the fermentation depend on factors such as temperature and humidity during the ham curing process. Generally, a longer and more intense fermentation process will result in a stronger and more pronounced flavor in the cured ham.